Establishing a multi-building corporate property as a solar campus is a common sense way to tap into large areas of unused rooftop and parking lot space for the purpose of solar generation. Once a solar campus is operational the company can rejoice in its brown energy reduction while contributing to a long-term facility investment. The solar campus is one of the more interesting forms of distributed generation because all available area is being used for onsite energy production.

Getting Started

When creating a solar campus, there are a few steps that need to take place. First and foremost, the customer needs to decide they are committed to reducing their electricity expenses. Blue Oak Energy can then work with the customer to design a solution that will bring/ensure/reap the desired financial benefits. Our analysts and engineers will then look at the electrical interconnection points and the available space for solar arrays on rooftops, in parking lots (for solar carports) and open land for ground mounted solar arrays.

USVA McClellan Air Force Base Solar Campus in Sacramento, CA
USVA McClellan Air Force Base Solar Campus in Sacramento, CA

Once all the preparatory pieces are in place, the engineering team at Blue Oak can design the implementation plan and ultimately begin installing a solar campus system. The variety of solar arrays located on rooftops, carports and open property will create what we call a solar campus.

Before or After?

While it is becoming more common for solar to be incorporated into new construction plans, solar is still, for the most part, an afterthought. This means we will usually be looking at the building or campus after construction is complete and attempting to find a solution to accommodate the solar.

Financial Impact

While it is unlikely that the output from a solar array can completely extinguish the annual energy consumption of a high energy corporate environment, a commercial solar energy system will greatly reduce peak loads and provide a significant financial return to the host customer.

Google Headquarters Solar Campus in Mountain View, CA

Why hire Blue Oak Energy for your next solar campus project?

When implementing a solar campus, there are many factors and challenges that can impede progress; Blue Oak Energy has the experience and know-how to navigate these complex issues and contingencies. A case in point is Google Headquarters in Mountain View, CA. When we engineered the solar rooftop systems and carport solar arrays for Google, we were dealing with a unique scenario. The entire main campus has a single utility company meter which fed a medium voltage distribution loop around the campus. On the Google project, we learned to work with a distributed interconnection architecture across a solar campus project.

We have had similar challenges at several Naval Facilities campuses, as well as with other corporate campuses such as Fortinet in Santa Clara, CA. To get a better idea of what a solar campus can do, take a look at Blue Oak Energy’s

Fortinet Solar Campus in Santa Clara, CA
Fortinet Solar Campus in Santa Clara, CA portfolio of completed solar campuses. Solar campuses are a smart way to reduce energy costs, and when combined with solar carports, the possibilities are even greater.

INCREASED NET METERING APPLICATIONS: Virtual Net Energy Metering (VNEM) & Net Energy Metering Aggregation (NEMA)

Increased applications for Net Metering could mean exciting new benefits for utility customers. But before we talk about some of these developments, let’s look at how traditional Net Energy Metering works.

What is Net Energy metering?

Traditional Net Energy Metering (NEM) allows electricity customers with solar capabilities to reduce their electrical load while also receiving a financial credit for onsite solar power production. The NEM customer’s expenses are trued-up annually to include the solar energy contribution for their billing cycle.  Typically in North America, the customer generates surplus electricity in the summer while consuming more electricity in the winter.  The goal is for customers to fully offset their annual energy consumption with solar energy production to result in a net-zero energy import.  What NEM does is allow customers to size their generation to meet their annual load rather than the peak demand

NEM started in the 1990’s and today is widely adopted in over 43 states. Recognized as an important US policy framework, NEM supports direct customer investment in grid-tied distributed renewable energy generation for commercial businesses, residential customers, and public entities. Most importantly, it provides a long term, predictable benefit that approaches the fully bundled retail rate the customer would normally pay to the utility company.  Although in the past NEM has been limited to a single residence or commercial building with a single meter, the policy is continuously expanding its scope.

For example, the California Public Utilities Commission recently initiated a broader NEM application to allow for more complicated ownership structures to increase their commercial solar power production. Many types of commercial buildings and properties are now eligible for these expanded programs. And customers with multiple electricity meters or limited possibilities for incorporating a nearby solar array are now excellent candidates for solar energy production.  Thanks to the California Public Utility Commission and its stakeholders, the rules for new NEM applications are expanding to address previous shortfalls.

What about Virtual Net Energy Metering?

VNEM is a way of allocating on-site energy generation virtually through the utility billing system, rather than by hard-wiring separate systems to each tenant’s electricity meter or electrical load center.  The result is an increased ability to account for net energy metering of multiple customers with a singular grid tie-in that is separate from the electricity load center.

Who uses VNEM? VNEM is ideal when multiple electricity customers share a single contiguous property such as apartments, strip malls, condominiums and corporate complexes, which lack the area or rights to directly install solar power.  With VNEM, a single commercial solar energy system may be installed to cover the electricity load of both common and tenant areas connected at the same service delivery point. The proportion of solar energy owned by the tenants will then be applied to their utility bill. Several pieces of legislature, including The California Community Solar Bill (Senate Bill 43) and the Colorado Community Solar Gardens Act (HOUSE BILL 10-1342) are essentially VNEM policies. Utility companies such as the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) and Seattle Power & Light have all implemented limited VNEM programs to better serve their customers.

NEM Figure 1

Figure 1: Several VNEM customers, image courtesy of

What is Net Energy Metering Aggregation?

The structure for NEMA projects (based in California) differs slightly in that it allows for a single retail customer with meters tied to multiple interconnection points, or “service delivery points”, to offset energy consumption across those meters with a single onsite renewable generator.  However, in order for multiple interconnection points to receive credit for the renewable generator, they must be on contiguous or adjacent properties.  There are some nuances to the definition of “contiguous and adjacent”. For example. the definition does generously allow a public right-of-way such as a road or a power line to dissect the various qualifying properties. The NEMA strategy gets complicated when there are multiple meters on different rate structures or an overproduction of energy compared to consumption.

NEM Figure 2a


NEM Figure 2b


Figure 2: Net Energy Metering Aggregation (NEMA)

How Blue Oak Energy Can Help

Since these applications are a new twist to the traditional solar NEM structure, Blue Oak can help customers navigate decisions about where to allocate energy and why. We know that both VNEM and NEMA require monthly and annual calculations for costs and balance of energy production and consumption, and in California they allow only 1 MW-ac production.  On the positive side, VNEM offers exciting possibilities for multi-tenant buildings and common commercial buildings to install a single solar system to cover common and tenant area loads.  And NEMA opens up larger single customer complexes to solar arrays that can contribute to the customers’ full load without applying the power directly to the same meter.  These niche onsite commercial solar energy generation applications create new potential for developing and delivering distributed generation solar facilities, and we look forward to exploring these new opportunities.

Photovoltaic Energy Generation Water Footprint

By guest blog poster Matt Seitzler, PE, The Davis Energy Group

Drought and Water Usage

As a result of last year’s record low rainfall, at the beginning of this year California Governor Jerry Brown declared a state of emergency asking all of California to conserve water during what would end up being an unprecedented three-year drought. Today California faces this drought where nearly 58% of the state is classified by the U.S. Drought Monitor1 as being in an “exceptional level” of drought;  it’s highest level of drought intensity classification. This heightened state of awareness regarding water has brought the issue of water usage across all sectors of society into focus. One area of particular interest not often discussed, is the issue of water usage in the production of electricity. As the US population grows the stress on freshwater resources is now becoming evident especially in areas like the Southeast of the US, where in some cases water usage via the generation of electricity is greater than that used by residences within certain areas2. In fact in the report Burning our Rivers: The Water Footprint of Electricity, the authors calculate that, for an average US household, the amount of water consumed for electricity generation to meet household loads—using the current portfolio of generation technologies—is five times that of the average water consumption.

Water Footprint for Electricity

All types of electric power generation use water in some form, but not surprisingly this amount is not the same across generation technologies.  As a part of the Burning Our Rivers report, the authors analyzed the water footprint for traditional electricity generation sources (coal, nuclear, and natural gas) as well as emerging resources like renewable energy technologies (solar thermal, geothermal, photovoltaics (PV)). Comparison of water usage is based upon the determination of the water footprint of each

Figure 1. Lifecycle Water Use for Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (Gallons/MWh)
Figure 1. Lifecycle Water Use for Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (Gallons/MWh)

technology in gallons per MegaWatthour (MWh). Water footprint is classified in terms of the sum of the amount of water used, or withdrawn, and the amount of water wasted, or consumed; usually as a result of evaporation of stored water.  One item to note is that while the water footprint is useful in comparing generation technologies, another important aspect not captured in the volumetric water footprint are the thermal effects of certain power generation technologies on the surrounding environments. As water is often used to cool facilities and then it is ejected into the environment, this practice has been shown to adversely affect nearby ecosystems causing algae and loss of animal species.2

Figure 1. Lifecycle Water Use of Electricity (Gallons/MWh)

Water and PV

The Burning our Rivers report analyzes water use during the upstream or manufacturing phase and during the on-site power generation phase of each of the technologies included. In the chart above, findings from the report show that PV is the second overall least users of water on a gallons per MWh basis. Additionally, the production of PV modules and equipment was found to require a minimal amount of water withdrawn and nearly no water consumed during the manufacturing phase. In the on-site power generation stage of the analysis, PV with its low water use requirements during operation and maintenance enabled it to be the second least user of water in that category as well.

Commonly, PV facilities require small amounts of water in their maintenance typically due to the cleaning of module surfaces resulting from soiling from the environment. Previously done by hand, with the introduction of robotic cleaning devices, the use of water can be more precisely controlled while even some manufacturers are reporting positive cleaning results using robotic cleaning devices without the use of water at all.

So, while the use of PV for power generation might require the use of more land and possible animal habitat, it would not be at the cost of additional water loads and the introduction of thermal load into the environment. With the introduction of new energy storage technologies coupled with a beneficial water footprint, PV is poised to be an even more sustainable way to meet our electric power generation needs.


[1] US Drought monitor website:

[2] Burning Our Rivers: The Water Footprint of Electricity, by W. Wilson, T. Leipzig, and B. Griffiths-Sattenspiel,

Determining Pile Depth for Utility Scale Solar Farms

Providing optimized utility scale solar engineering designs almost always involves performing an actual field loading and testing of piles at the site during the design phase. Pile load testing is important because if you can save 1 foot of post embedment across thousands of posts, a substantial labor and material cost savings may be achieved.


Empirical techniques usually require some type of validation and testing during construction to be in accordance with many building codes, such as the California Building Code (CBC). Additionally, we recommend actual field load testing as the accuracy of empirical estimations is reduced with shallow pile embedment depths as expected for this project. It is our professional opinion that performing actual load testing for design tends to reduce design conservatism (and thus material costs) and can potentially reduce “changed conditions” claims during construction.

We usually propose driving test piles to provide information for the design phase, recording such information as the total depth driven, time to drive each pile, and depths of abrupt changes in driving resistance and refusal. We have assumed mechanical pile driving equipment (with vibratory driving methods) will be an option for installation of the piles during construction and we typically base our proposed technical services around this method.


As part of this scope we will perform uplift and lateral load testing of piles a minimum of 24-hours after they are driven. We expect to perform the uplift test first, and then apply a lateral load on the same pile. Since the amount of movement associated with the uplift test is very small, the potential for an adverse effect on the lateral load test should be acceptable.

Vertical pile load testing
Vertical pile load testing

Pile uplift and lateral deflection testing shall be performed by using a 12-foot steel load frame with a 10,000 lb. capacity. A calibrated 30,000 lb. capacity hydraulic hollow-ram load device manufactured by Enerpac will be used for load measuring. A reaction frame equipped with 2 digital indicators accurate to within 10

Lateral pile load testing
Lateral pile load testing

thousandths of an inch will be used for vertical and lateral deflection measurements. The testing will be in general conformance with ASTM D 3689-07, Standard Test Method for Deep Foundations under Static Axial Tensile Load and ASTM D 3966-07, Standard Test Method for Deep Foundations under Lateral Load, as modified by our sub for the small piles being tested. The testing apparatus will be transported to the project site by trailer and will be positioned at the desired test location using a backhoe and/or skid steer loader. Once the load testing is complete, we will remove and dispose of the piles.


Our typical deliverable when optimizing pile embedment depths for a site will be a brief narrative of our testing observations and an Excel spreadsheet containing the test results. Our report will include the following:

  • Project identification and location, including test site locations.
  • Descriptions of test, including pile installation equipment, reaction systems, load and deflection measurement devices, weather, unusual events during pile installation, and other factors which may have an influence on the results.
  • Site plan showing approximate pile test locations.
  • Type and dimensions of test piles, length of test pile during driving, final bottom elevations relative to ground elevation, embedded length of test piles, and tested length of test pile. Driving records (date installed, rate of pile penetration in feet/second for driving, cause and duration of interruptions in pile installation, if any, and notation of any unusual occurrences during installation).
  • Tabulated and graphed measurements of load and deflection for each test, with the test number and embedment depth indicated.

Although there is some effort involved in pile load testing for solar projects, we have witnessed this advance planning resulting in site optimization and expense reduction. If Blue Oak Energy may be of service to assist with pile load testing, our civil and mechanical engineering team is a great resource for developing the test plan, deploying the pile load test crews, and summarizing the results in a meaningful format for your utility scale solar facility.

Transformer Basics for Solar Power Plants

All grid-tied photovoltaic systems include a main power transformer to provide galvanic isolation, step up the voltage and transfer energy back to the utility grid.  A common transformer size for most medium voltage solar facilities is the 0.75 to 2.5MVA, 15kV class step-up product range.  Medium sized PV systems are required to step up their output voltage up to 34.5kV in order to interconnect at common North American distribution voltages.  Let’s take a moment to consider the fundamentals of how a transformer works.

Transformers work by transforming voltages from the input to the output due to the physics around electromagnetic fields.  The electrical current running through the primary (input) windings produces a magnetic field through a metallic core of the transformer.  This magnetic field has a certain magnetic flux associated with it.  The magnetic flux flows through the surface area of the transformer core until it reaches the secondary (output) winding.  The magnetic flux induces an electromagnetic force in the secondary windings, which produces a voltage.    The number of turns on the secondary winding is directly proportional to the secondary voltage.  The number of turns in the secondary winding relative to the primary winding determines whether the voltage is stepped up or down.

Transformers usually step voltages up for transmission purposes.  On utility grid distribution and transmission systems, electrical energy will be produced at lower voltages and then stepped up to higher voltages in increments such as 128, 230, 345, 500 and 765 kV.  Higher voltages minimize the losses from the inductance or resistance in the wire during the transmission process.  Transformers are used mostly on AC electrical systems to move electrical energy from the power plants to the substations to individual businesses, houses or loads.    This transmission of energy would require a step down from the higher voltages in the power plant to the lower voltage of 120 V typically found in U.S. residential homes.  This voltage step down is done through the use of a transformer and the ratio of how much the voltage is decreased depends on the number of turns in the transformer.  Let’s look at the theory behind the ideal transformer.

Figure 1 – Transformer Diagram

Figure 1 – The primary voltage is either stepped up or stepped down depending on the number of turns in the windings of both sides.
Figure 1 – The primary voltage is either stepped up or stepped down depending on the number of turns in the windings of both sides.

Variable Space

The change in the magnetic flux is the same on both sides. This yields the following equations.


Looking at figure 1, we can tell that: Vs=(3/10)Vp. This Ideal transformer steps the primary voltage down by a factor of 0.3! The number of windings affects how much the transformer will either step up or step down the voltage.  In the example, the primary voltage was reduced by 3/10. This happened because the number of turns on the secondary source was less than the number of turns on the primary source.  This decreases the primary voltage by the ratio between the turns.   This effect could also be used to increase the voltage.  By increasing the number of turns on the secondary source, the primary voltage could also be stepped up.  People with solar systems (120V/240V) that produce more energy than their household consumes have to step up to the medium voltage range (12kV) in order to send energy back to the utility grid.

When choosing a transformer in a PV system, it is important to select the correct power rating and voltage rating on both the primary side and the secondary side of the transformer.  Transformers are typically rated in kVA (kilo* volt * amp).  The kVA rating of the transformer shall match (or be slightly larger than) the kVA rating of the generation source (in our case this is the PV system inverter). The low voltage side of the transformer must match the output voltage of the inverter.  The high voltage side of the transformer must match the grid interconnection voltage supplied on the the utility company transmission / distribution system.  The transformer should be able to handle the power requirements on both the low voltage and high voltage sides.  All this information is taken into account by Blue Oak Energy when designing a PV system. There are other nuances also, such as the transformer efficiency, the coolants types, the bushings, fuses, cabinet features and other options to choose from. It is important to be quite detailed and deliberate when ordering transformers because these electrical products are made-to-order with 4 to 16 week lead times.

On utility-scale solar energy facilities, voltages are transformed after the inverter for delivery to the utility grid voltage.  A transformer on a solar power facility is primarily used to step-up the voltage to deliver the renewable energy to the utility grid.  However, the transformer has some added benefits in that it provides galvanic isolation between the solar facility and the utility grid.  A transformer is essentially and air gap between two conductor windings.  This galvanic isolation is used for safety and equipment protection by preventing ground fault loops.

These are the basic operative points behind transformers, how they work and why they are important as a primary component on solar electric power plants.  Transformers come in all shapes and sizes with many different features.  When selecting a transformer for your next commercial solar energy system or utility scale solar power facility, please give Blue Oak Energy a call and request a look at your specific situation.

For more information like this, please visit view Transformer Basics Tech Talk #8 in a video format at: